Under the old British Colonial system for spelling Chinese words with roman characters, called the Wade-Giles system, the capital of China, 北京 (literally “northern capital”) was called Peking. In 1958 the Chinese government published their own official romanization scheme, called Pinyin. In Pinyin, 北京 romanizes to Beijing, and after the US normalized relations with China in 1979, Pinyin became the international standard and English publications around the world started calling the Chinese capital Beijing instead of Peking.
But though the capital is now referred to universally as Beijing, the old usage of Peking still survives in a few places. One is in the name of China’s top university, which is still referred to as Peking University – don’t ask why; a good friend of the family got her degree there and even she doesn’t know. Another such linguistic remnant is that culinary marvel: Peking Duck. Most of you will at some point have eaten or at least heard of it: a whole duck, slow-roasted for over 24 hours in a special oven through a special and involved process (see the Wikipedia article), served with thin pancakes, green onions, and hoisin sauce.
Peking duck has been around a long time – the first known mention of it was in a cookbook published in the year 1330. And in 1901, during the closing years of the Qing dynasty, a Yunnanese restauranteur named Zhang Wen went to Beijing to study cookery there, most notably the art of preparing Peking Duck. When he returned to his home town of Yiliang, he opened a restaurant called Zhibin Garden at the local train station. But restauranteur Zhang was not content to merely reproduce the Beijing Duck of the capital; he wanted to localize it and make it something unique to the region.
Zhang used a mud oven instead of a brick oven, honey instead of malt syrup for the glaze, and most distinctively pine branches and needles instead of the Gaoliang hardwood normally used for Peking duck. The end result is now called Yiliang Duck and has become a Yunnanese speciality. One I certainly intend to try when we arrive.